Scientists shed new light on the role of calcium in learning and memory

first_imgWhile calcium’s importance for our bones and teeth is well known, its role in neurons–in particular, its effects on processes such as learning and memory–has been less well defined.In a new study published in the journal Cell Reports, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) offer new insights how calcium in mitochondria–the powerhouse of all cells–can impact the development of the brain and adult cognition.In particular, the team showed in fruit flies, a widely used model system, that blocking a channel that brings calcium to the mitochondria, called “mitochondrial calcium uniporter,” causes memory impairment but does not alter learning capacity. “When we knocked down the activity of the uniporter, we found that flies have a deficit memory,” said Ron Davis, chair of the TSRI’s Department of Neuroscience. “Intact uniporter function is necessary for full and complete memory in the adult fly. What surprised us is that they were still able to learn–albeit with a fleeting memory. But we thought they wouldn’t be able to learn at all.”The mitochondrial calcium uniporter protein, first identified in 2011, allows calcium ions to move from the cell’s interior into mitochondria–like coal moving through a shoot into a furnace room. It is regulated by other proteins known as MICU1, MICU2 and EMRE. Davis noted that human patients with mutations in MICU1 can exhibit learning disabilities.“The new study’s conclusion is that mitochondrial calcium entry during development is necessary to establish the neuronal competency for supporting adult memory,” said TSRI Research Associate Ilaria Drago, the first author of the study.Drago noted the team found evidence that inhibiting mitochondrial calcium uniporter function led to a decrease in the content of synaptic vesicles (miniscule sacs within the cell where various neurotransmitters are stored) and an increase in the length of axons (the slender filaments of neurons).While these structural problems were clearly observed, she added, what they mean in terms of neuronal development remains tantalizingly unclear. “The discovery of a developmental role for the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex in regulating memory in adult flies is especially intriguing and deserves more exploration,” said Davis. Pinterest LinkedIn Sharecenter_img Email Share on Twitter Share on Facebooklast_img read more

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Player on the verge of signing for Arsenal – Gunners at…

first_imgRúnar Alex Rúnarsson is reportedly very close to joining Arsenal. Sources from Icelandic outlet DV claim that the player is having a medical with the club today, and is ready to sign a five-year deal with the club.The outlet brings a mix of their own information with what they’ve been reading in England. So according to English claims, the London side are paying Dijon about €1.5m for the move.DV highlights the fact that with Emiliano Martinez now leaving Arsenal, Rúnarsson joins the club to be their second option, and should compete for a place with Bernd Leno.Embed from Getty ImagesRúnarsson left Iceland still as a teenager, moving to Danish side Nordsjaelland back in 2014. He spent four years there, and signed for French club Dijon in 2018 in a €1.6m deal.His time at Dijon has been full of ups and downs, as he switched between being a starter and being benched last season.The goalkeeper also has five caps for the national team, but hasn’t been their first option lately.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksTrending TodayHero Wars根本不可能获得这个宝藏!来证明我们错了Hero WarsUndoTip ParentsBaby Keeps Waking Up With Scratches, Mom Checks Camera And Calls CopsTip ParentsUndoRich HousesCosplay Costumes That Went A Little Too FarRich HousesUndoDaily Sport XShe Was A Legendary Actress – Today She Works 9 To 5Daily Sport XUndoBeach RaiderMom Delivers Triplets – Dad Takes Closer Look And Bursts Into TearsBeach RaiderUndoFree HubThe 15 Most Beautiful Women in the WorldFree HubUndoForge of Empires – Free Online GameIf You Like to Play, this City-Building Game is a Must-Have. No Install.Forge of Empires – Free Online GameUndoWork + MoneyAncient Rome Might Disgust YouWork + MoneyUndoStadium TalkRanking: Greatest Cricket Batsmen of All TimeStadium TalkUndolast_img read more

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