South Korea MERS totals grow by 1 infection, 1 death

first_imgIn a further sign of slowing in South Korea’s MERS-CoV outbreak, the country reported just one new case and one additional death over the past few days, edging the total to 182 infections, 32 of them fatal.The World Health Organization has said that the recent drop in infections linked to a single healthcare-related transmission chain signals that South Korea’s control measures are having an impact. But it warned that more cases were likely to be detected, perhaps even some in the community, given the large number of contacts still under monitoring.Another ill health workerSouth Korea has gone 2 days without reporting a newly confirmed MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) case. The health ministry said the most recent case, announced on Jun 27, was in a nurse who was exposed to the virus while treating a patient, according the Korea Times.According to a health ministry update today, 36 healthcare workers have been sickened in the outbreak.Yesterday health officials reported that a 55-year-old man who contracted the virus at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul died from his infection, Agence France-Presse (AFP) reported today. His illness was confirmed on Jun 9.Samsung was the second hospital to be hit by the virus, which spread in the facility quickly when a man who was unknowingly infected at the first hospital spent nearly 3 days in the emergency department, where he exposed other patients, visitors, and staff.Currently, 2,682 possible contacts are in home or hospital monitoring, 120 more than the day before, the health ministry said.Index patient recoversIn a related development, the index patient—a 68-year-old man who got sick after traveling to four Middle Eastern countries—has recovered from MERS-CoV and was discharged from National Medical Center, the Korea Times reported today.He still has pneumonia but has cleared the virus, based on several rounds of testing, the story said. He is now being treated at a general hospital.The man had visited a handful of clinics and hospitals before his MERS-CoV infection was confirmed on May 20, which triggered a large nosocomial outbreak—the largest outside of the Middle East—that affected several hospitals.Policy changesIn other outbreak developments, government officials announced some new policy changes to help stem future disease outbreaks.Kwon Deok-cheol, a senior health ministry official, said the government will expand national health insurance coverage for people who have infectious diseases, along with those who need to be isolated in negative-pressure rooms in hospitals, the Korea Herald reported today.He said national health insurance would also cover the installation of more negative-pressure rooms and maintain the ones that are already in operation. He added that the MERS outbreak showed that South Korea has a severe shortage of negative-pressure rooms and that some of the existing ones haven’t been properly maintained.As another measure, hospitals will be required to separate their emergency departments and areas for patients who need to be isolated from other hospital wards, according to Kwon. The health ministry will also roll out regular incentive-based infection control evaluations for hospitals.He said the new measures will be finalized and confirmed in July, according to the report.Thai patient declared virus-freeAn Omani man who was hospitalized with a MERS-CoV infection in Thailand, becoming its first imported case, has been declared free of the virus but will remain in quarantine for the time being, Reuters reported today, citing the country’s health ministry.The 75-year-old man had symptoms before he departed Oman, accompanied by three family members, but his infection wasn’t detected until he arrived in Thailand for treatment of a cardiac condition.Surachet Satitramai, acting secretary of the health ministry, said the man’s latest test results were negative for MERS-CoV, but he will remain hospitalized to assess if his other health conditions will have any effect on his recovery.The man’s relatives remain free of the virus, and the health ministry is still monitoring 36 people who may have had contact with the Omani man, according to the Reuters report.See also:Jun 27 Korea Times storyJun 29 AFP storyJun 29 South Korean health ministry statisticsJun 29 Korea Herald storyJun 29 Reuters storylast_img read more

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Zimbabwe Pastor claims to have God’s number

first_imgPaul Sanyangore, a pastor at Victory World International Ministries Church in Zimbabwe appeared to be speaking to God on phone before the congregation during a church service.The pastor claims to have a direct phone number to heaven, after a video of him talking on the phone during a church service emerged, reports the Citizen.In the video, the pastor can be seen holding his cellphone and responding to God’s questions. After calling a woman from the crowd, and as she kneels down, he then starts receiving instructions from “heaven”.“Hello‚ is this heaven? Is it heaven? I have a woman here‚ what do you have to say about her?” the phone call started, the pastor starts asking the woman personal questions from God on the other side of the phone.The Pastor asked personal information revealed by “God” about the woman who was responding in the affirmative.The pastor spoke while assuming the role of connecting a woman and God infront of a cheering crowd.“…He says we should pray for your children. two of them. He is saying the other one is epileptic, the other one is asthmatic … Heaven is online. God is telling me to tell you that your story has changed,” he said before ending the call.Yelling in jubilation to his congregants‚ the pastor screamed “heaven is online!”The pastor said that he will share Gods number when the time is right on Bulawayo 24 after going viral online.“I have a direct channel, actually I have His number and I can call Him when need arises. It is possible to talk to God; why would you doubt that I got a call from Him? I actually have a direct line which I can call Him on and get instructions on how to proceed. I got this when I was praying and I heard a voice telling me to call direct,” he was quoted as saying.last_img read more

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Tarpons Prepare for District Opener

first_imgBy LARRY GAGESpecial to the PRESSThe Port Isabel Tarpons football team took advantage of an extra week to heal up and prepare generally and, at long last, it’s time to start the district season.  The Tarpons will host the Progreso Red Ants this Friday night in the first district game for both teams and it will be Homecoming.“We worked hard last week and the kids had a good week of practice on our open week,” head P.I. football coach and athletic director said this week.  “We’ve got to correct some little things.  We do the little things correctly, we’ll be in good shape.”The head coach was asked about his team’s passing game and how it seemed to come alive against Brownsville St. Joseph’s.  “We’re throwing the ball better.  We’ve been working hard on that every day in practice.”Whatever time and effort was spent in practice on the passing game before the St. Jo’sgame obviously paid off, at least for that one night.  Against the Bloodhounds quarterback Omar Silva completed eight of seventeen passes for 136 yards and two touchdowns.In the 2014 regular season Tarpon passers threw for more than 12 yards in only four games, and averaged a mere 38 yards per contest.  In four games there was not a single pass completion.  About the only way to go from stats like that is up.In 2013, Isaiah Martinez completed 35 of 57 passes in the regular season for 625 yards and nine scores.The fact that Progreso has never beaten Port Isabel in 30 tries should be a warning flag to all Tarpon players and coaches.“In this district you’ve got to bring your “A” game every Friday,” Stumbaugh said Monday.  “Progreso, to me, is always dangerous because they play extremely hard.  Coach Salazar is doing a great job over there and he’s got those kids playing hard.  Our mindset better be on respecting what they can do.”“They’re running some kicks back and they’ve hit some long passes.  Defensively they’ve got an eight-man front and they just come and get you.”Through four non-district games Omar Silva is the team’s leading rusher with 288 yards gained on the ground and has scored three times.  Silva has done almost all the passing this season for P.I. and has thrown for 183 yards on 13 completions in 29 attempts.  Williams Romero has connected on six of 10 extra-point attempts and made two field goals in as many attempts for 12 total points.For the “Seawall Defense”, linebacker John Ray Martinez leads the team in tackles with 28 total stops, including five for loss, and recovered a fumble.  Defensive end Raul Villareal and defensive back Ricky Gonzalez each have 22 total tackles, and Villareal also has two quarterback sacks and two forced fumbles.  Defensive back Carlos Orduna leads with two interceptions.Want the whole story? Pick up a copy of the Port Isabel-South Padre Press, or subscribe to our E-Edition by clicking here. Share RelatedCancelled!By LARRY GAGE Special to the PRESS It was lightning more than rain that forced the cancellation of last Friday night’s non-district road football game between the Port Isabel Tarpons and the Hidalgo Pirates. Some games in the Lower Rio Grande Valley were played as scheduled but quite a few…September 18, 2015In “News”Tarpons Go Down, 54-40, at IDEA QuestBy LARRY GAGE Special to the PRESS The Port Isabel Tarpons went on the road Tuesday night and lost a 54-40 decision to Edinburg IDEA Quest in a non-district basketball game. “We’re getting better,” first-year head coach Anthony Velarde told the Press Wednesday morning.  “We’re just not putting together a…December 6, 2015In “News”Tarpons on road again, to RGCBy LARRY GAGE Special to the PRESS After opening the 2011 district season with a big win at home last Friday against Zapata, the Port Isabel Tarpons hit the road this week for the fourth time for a game with the Grulla Gators in Rio Grande City. The Tarpons have…October 13, 2011In “Sports”last_img read more

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Nelson Toyota, Northport meet again in WKMBL Final

first_imgJeremy Phelan scored 24 points and Mike Vance added 23 to lead Nelson Toyota.The winners opened a 56-40 lead in the second half before Empire rallied to make the game close. Nelson Toyota led 37-32 at halftime.Chase Rickaby scored 21 while bother Addison added 16 for Empire.Nelson Toyota defeated Kootenay Co-op 75-67 to advance to the semi final round while Empire outlasted DeVitos 104-100.In consolation play, Ryan McKinnon scored a game high 43 points to lead DeVitos past Kootenay Co-op  86-81. Joel DeVito added 18 points for the winners. It will be a rematch of last season in the West Kootenay Men’s Basketball League.Nelson Toyota and Northport, Wash., won their respective divisions to advance to the League Final Monday at Mount Sentinel High School Gymnasium. Nelson Toyota edged Northport in 2018 in a high-scoring affair at Selkirk College in Castlegar.Nelson Toyota edged Empire 75-69 Monday at the LVR Hangar while Northport knocked off Mota Automotive 89-71 in Rossland.last_img read more

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Anthony Cunningham Steps Down as Galway Hurling Manager

first_imgAnthony Cunningham has stepped down as Galway hurling manager. In a secret ballot overseen by an independent observer last night 26 out of 32 voted ‘no’ when asked if they had confidence in the current management.In a Statement released this evening he said…..I, Anthony Cunningham incumbent Senior Hurling Manager since 2012, hereby confirm the following:- Despite the fact that I was unanimously ratified and supported by the Galway GAA Clubs, the County Hurling and Galway County Committees and having reviewed the current impasse in detail over the past month, it is with great sadness tonight that I and my Management Team announce our resignation from our positions.I do so with the best interests of Galway Hurling in mind and with the priority of best assisting Galway hurling to build on the achievement of 2015. As a Management team we have exhausted all avenues with support from the clubs, their delegates, the hurling fraternity and County Committees in the past month to bring this impasse to a conclusion and protect Galway Hurling.Despite extensive attempts at genuine dialogue including Independent Arbitration, there were no reasonable explanations offered or given as to the issues that players felt they had. I believe that the players are misguided in that they are not taking the views of their county on board. They, through their actions, have shown scant respect for, and loyalty to the goodwill shown them by supporters, clubs and County GAA Committees and Management.I contend it is unreasonable to express a lack of confidence in management – how else could we have reached a winning position in an All-Ireland Final last September? I consider this a kangaroo court decision, led by a core group of players orchestrated with the help of others outside Galway, motivated by a desire to unjustly extend their lifespan as inter-county players placing personal agendas above the greater good of Galway Hurling.This goes to the very core of what our Association stands for – there is a national danger now that the democratic and voluntary ethos of the GAA is being overrun by groups of players that wish to indulge in the selection and termination of management.Galway Hurling is bigger than any one individual and given that this current impasse shows no immediate sign of abating, I reluctantly conclude that it best that I now step aside. I hold a deep conviction that the current Galway management team is the one best positioned to deliver Galway hurling to the next level and bring All-Ireland Senior success to our county.I thank my family, my management team colleagues and their families for their support and I am very sensitive the hurt they have endured in the very recent past. I salute the county officials and officers and numerous volunteers who have given me magnificent support over the last five years.With Disappointment & Sincerity,print WhatsApp Facebook Twitter Email This brings to an end a long-running saga that started shortly after Galway lost the All-Ireland final to Kilkenny in September.last_img read more

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Arsenal fan’s tweet mocking Spurs for ‘playing Qarabag’ comes back to haunt

first_imgAN ARSENAL fan’s tweet sent out three years ago mocking Tottenham for “playing a team called Qarabag” has returned to haunt them.Unai Emery’s side host their Azerbaijani opponents at the Emirates in a meaningless Europa League clash today.6 Qarabag will be in London as they play at the Emirates against Arsenal – much to Spurs fans’ delightCredit: www.azizkarimov.com6 This was the hilarious tweet sent out by an Arsenal fan three years agoCredit: Twitter/@DareToWengerThe Gunners have already booked their spot in the knockout stages of the European competition.Spurs, meanwhile, miraculously secured a 1-1 draw at Barcelona to reach the knockout stages of the Champions League.And a tweet sent out three years ago by an Arsenal fan has resurfaced to provide some humour between the two London clubs.A Twitter user called “The Arsenal” posted back on September 17, 2015: “Whenever you feeling down, just remember Spurs are playing a team called Qarabag tonight.”6 Sead Kolasinac might be one of the few senior pros on show in Arsenal’s dead rubber against QarabagCredit: AFP6 The poster of the tweet all those years ago seemed to take the abuse back in good heartCredit: Twitter/@DareToWenger6 And there was some mutual appreciation between the two bitter rivals over the tweet that has returned to hauntCredit: Twitter/@DareToWengerThey followed this with an emoji of a smiley face crying tears of laughter.The poster paid credit, albeit probably through gritted teeth, to “the Spurs fan who gave me stick for this tweet”.Since it was first highlighted back in August, a steady flow of football fans, many revelling in the glory as Spurs fans, have commented on the post.”This aged well”, “ouch” and “right back at you” were just some of the witty replies.Most Read In FootballBRO MESSAGEBobby Charlton’s touching tribute to Jack revealed as he misses funeral serviceFRESH OUTFITMicah Richards pokes fun at Roy Keane backstage at Sky Sports studiosFALL OF TROYDeeney calls Sky reporter ‘cheeky b******’ after he asks about retirementSHOTS FIREDDenis Irwin’s son trolls Liverpool fans with savage Steven Gerrard tweetPicturedC’MON THE LADSRamos’ becomes dad again as wife gives birth to FOURTH son Maximo AdrianoVideoROY MEANKeane says ‘that’s why they never win anything’ as Villa celebrate staying upWHO ARE THE UK’S TOP CLUB IN EUROPE?MISFIRING Manchester United would surprisingly sit above two English clubs in an overall Champions League table of this season, statistics can reveal.Jose Mourinho’s men limped into the last-16 after a defeat to Valencia… but it’s Tottenham who should be concerned.A table has been used to show where each team would place after the group stages.Sixteen teams have booked their spot in the knockout stages, but Spurs have the lowest points tally out of them all.Click here to find out just where the Premier League teams rank.6 Unai Emery might pick a second-string side, but he will still be expecting to beat QarabagCredit: GettySome of the other comments were far too crude to share.SunSport reported that Mesut Ozil and Laurent Koscielny are both set to return for Arsenal in the dead rubber clash.The experienced duo are expected to be named alongside a number of Unai Emery’s youngsters for the Europa League clash.Arsenal have already booked their spot in the knockout stages, which gives Emery the opportunity to test out some of his fringe players.last_img read more

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Music Industry Under Pressure: 5 Alternative Business Models

first_imgrichard macmanus Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#Analysis#web A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…center_img Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Our digital lifestyle Network blog last100 has been tracking the upheavals in the music industry over the past couple of weeks. First Radiohead released their new album entirely via their website (I got it and it’s awesome!), then Nine Inch Nails (a band which has experimented with the Internet a lot before) announced it has freed itself from recording contracts and become a free agent, and now Madonna is reported to be close to leaving her long-time label Warner Bros. Records for a reported $120 million deal with concert promoter Live Nation, Inc.last100 has been tracking all of this news and editor Steve O’Hear today offers up an analysis of where the music industry is at. The artists are experimenting and the record labels themselves are under big pressure. Steve wrote:The record industry is in dire trouble and the major record companies know it. According to the IFPI’s most recent figures, “physical” music sales were down 11% to $17.5bn in 2006, and, blaming piracy — both CD copying and online file-sharing — the IFPI says that overall music sales have fallen for the seventh year running.However, none of this was unpredicted, and in post-Napster 2003, Steve Jobs appeared to offer the recording industry a way into the future, through the iTunes Music Store. People didn’t want to steal music, argued Jobs, and if paid-for downloads could compete on price and convenience, then many of those illegal file traders would be converted back into paying customers. As a result, Jobs insisted on the unbundling of albums; instead all tracks would be offered for purchase individually, at the same price — 99c — whether they be a new release, top 40 hit, or an older and more obscure song. To which the majors reluctantly complied, and would later learn to regret.Fast-forward again to 2007, and although paid-for downloads are on the increase, they aren’t rising nearly fast enough to make up for the loss in revenue from falling CD sales. By Jobs’ own admission, on average only three percent of music on an iPod originates from the iTunes Music Store. As if to rub salt in the wound, iPod sales accounted for nearly half of Apple’s total revenue for 2006.Instead of recognizing that the record industry’s aging business model, even with the intervention of Jobs, is a broken one and in desperate need of a fix, the response has largely been litigation coupled with the introduction of technology, in the form of DRM, designed to enforce copy protection, which, ultimately, just inconveniences paying customers.If the iTunes model isn’t the answer, and business can’t go on as usual, then what is? Here are five alternative models for selling music, many of which are actually being tested by artists, entrepreneurs, and even the major record labels themselves.Read full story at last100last_img read more

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How to Save Money on Retail Security Services—Without Hurting Relationships with Suppliers

first_imgWhen you’re a large retail company, even minor cost savings can be meaningful. Case in point: Brett Biggs, Walmart’s chief financial officer, recently described his company’s plan to save millions annually.The strategy? Better floor wax.“Not only is the new wax cheaper, it’s also sturdier,” Biggs explained in October during investor day at its headquarters in Bentonville, AR. “It doesn’t need to be buffed as often, resulting in less spent on the actual buffing, as well as fuel for the machines.” That one change in floor wax will save Walmart more than $20 million per year, he estimates.- Sponsor – The retail behemoth also announced plans to replace all fluorescent fixtures with LEDs in stores and parking lots. After rollout is complete in the next few years, the switch is expected to net Walmart savings from lower energy costs totaling $200 million annually. It’s stark proof that a small savings project—tallied over time and multiplied across a chain—can add up big.Loss prevention directors have certainly done their part to help in this regard. Over the years, they have aggressively tried to eliminate waste, used technology to reduce costs, maximized staff productivity, and employed other cost-cutting strategies. And, like Walmart, they have reported that seemingly minor operational changes can yield significant budget savings. For example, a national cost-control survey, conducted by IOMA/LPM, revealed the following:Sixty percent of retail respondents have undertaken a project related to security lighting to reduce energy consumption and save money. These retailers gave their projects an average score of 3.48 for meeting cost-control expectations (where 1 is “failed to meet” expectations; 3 is cost savings “as expected”; and 5 is “substantially exceeded” expectations).Thirty-eight percent of security departments overall have tried to save money by making changes to patrols or in the fuel efficiency of security fleets. (Not surprisingly, this is a more popular strategy in organizations where there is a good deal of patrol work, like among utility and telecom companies.) The average rating of these projects was 3.45, indicating that security departments typically saved more money than they had expected.The security chief at a Florida shopping mall said his department replaced its fleet of Ford Explorer V6s with six Toyota Highlander Hybrid vehicles, and because each vehicle logs an average 24,000 miles per year in patrols, the mall sees significant savings from vehicles that get twice the gas mileage. One survey respondent said his security department’s switch to hybrid vehicles is saving his company $12,000 per year.The Supplier Side of Retail Security ServicesThe loss prevention director for a food company said it saved $129,000 in a single year by conducting an evaluation of key contracted security services to see whether they were getting their money’s worth.“In some cases, we’ve changed providers to increase service for the same cost. In other cases, we’ve reduced costs for the same services,” he said. “In all cases, our providers no longer take us for granted, and do a better job of providing quality service and equipment.” The food retailer also canceled contracts with some service providers and, by moving the services in house, they managed to provide the same services at a lower overall cost.The vendor relationship is the focus of a Perpetuity Research report released in July 2018, “The Barriers to Effective Buyer-Supplier Relationships in the Security Sector.” This new study makes the point that a close relationship a security supplier not only leads to better outcomes, it can save money.“In collaborative relationships suppliers are most often subsidiaries or affiliates of the buyer; there is often some form of interdependence. Buyers typically engage in these long-term relationships with a few select suppliers, with whom they establish high levels of trust,” according to the report. “Compared to transactional relationships, the benefits of these types of relationships include enhanced communication, costs savings, reliable delivery, higher quality, and greater flexibility.”The report also warns against allowing cost-control initiatives to dominate a relationship with security suppliers. “When an opportunity to reduce costs presents itself parties can jump on these opportunities in a way that undermines their relations with each other, with adverse consequences for levels of trust and cooperation,” the report warns.Said one director of global security, “You should always require your supplier to sharpen the pencil, but don’t make them regret the relationship.” A divisional loss prevention manager was more forceful: “Are you going to be able to get what you are looking for if you keep drilling on price?…They need to make a profit too. You can’t keep screwing the supplier.”It’s not a surprise that focusing on finances can be a significant source of conflict between security suppliers and end users. The report identified cost issues as the top barrier to buyer-supplier relationships, with 74 percent expressing the opinion that buyers are ‘frequently’ or ‘always’ too focused on price over quality.But price is always a concern, and there are ways that buyers of security services can control costs without chasing the lowest price in a way that sparks a “rush to the bottom” in terms of service level.One way, suggests the new Perpetuity Research study, is to truly understand your own security needs. When a buyer does not fully map its needs, or misunderstands them, it is unlikely to get the best fit and it becomes difficult to manage costs effectively.Another way, the report suggests, is for operations personnel to have sufficient power in the procurement process. If they are only brought in after the fact, some costs associated with how the service will be utilized may be ignored in the contract phase.Organizations may also pay a hidden price for their lack of involvement. “It can mean risks not being properly identified and mitigated and even in the buyers incurring additional costs to correct errors, let alone the inherent cost of having inadequate security in the first place,” according to the study.Finally, LP leaders may want to review the composition of their LP teams. Respondents suggested that having staff members who are former suppliers is often valuable during negotiations and for assessing suppliers’ expertise. Stay UpdatedGet critical information for loss prevention professionals, security and retail management delivered right to your inbox.  Sign up nowlast_img read more

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SVG Circle Decomposition To Paths

first_img M (CX + R), CYa R,R 0 1,0 -(R * 2),0a R,R 0 1,0 (R * 2),0 Same applies as the previous path. HomeWeb DesignSVG Circle Decomposition To Paths M CX, CYa R, R 0 1,0 -(R * 2), 0a R, R 0 1,0 R * 2, 0and uses the translate function to move +R on the X axis. The starting position for our textPath (since we have not specified it in any way) is determined by our first ending arc -(R * 2), given the radius that the arc itself has. M CX CYm -R, 0a R,R 0 1,0 (R * 2),0a R,R 0 1,0 -(R * 2),0 Since we are ending at (R * 2 ) in our first arc, we will obviously be starting at the opposite position. In other words, this one starts where our previous two paths ended. SVG Circle Decomposition To PathsYou are here: (dm, ra, yk, il)From our sponsors: SVG Circle Decomposition To Paths Chrome SVG Circle Decomposition To Paths SVG Circle Decomposition To Paths Bryan Rasmussen 2019-03-22T13:00:08+01:00 2019-03-22T12:35:44+00:00This article starts with a confession: I like to hand-code SVG. It’s not always the case but often enough it could seem peculiar to people who do not share my predilection. There are a good number of benefits in being able to write SVG by hand, such as optimizing SVGs in ways a tool can’t (turning a path into a simpler path or shape), or by simply understanding how libraries like D3 or Greensock work.With that said, I’d like to look more closely at circular shapes in SVG and things we can do with them when we move past a basic circle. Why circles? Well, I love circles. They’re my favorite shape.First off (hopefully you’ve seen a basic circle in SVG before), here’s a pen that shows one:See the Pen circle by Bryan Rasmussen.A lot of things can be done with a circle: it can be animated and it can have different colors applied to it. Still, there are two very nice things that you cannot have a circle do in SVG 1.1: You cannot make another graphical element move along the circle’s path (using the animateMotion element) and you cannot have shape a text along a circle’s path (this will only be allowed after SVG 2.0 is released).Turning Our Circle Into A PathThere is a little online tool that can help you create paths out of circles (you can try it out here), but we’re going to do be creating everything from scratch so we can find out what’s really going on behind the scenes.To make a circular path, we’re going to actually make two arcs, i.e. semicircles that complete the circle in one path. As you’ve probably noticed in the SVG above, the attributes CX, CY, and R respectively define where the circle is drawn along the X and Y axis, while R defines the radius of the circle. The CX and CY create the center of the circle, so the circle is drawn around that point.Replicating that circle could look like this:Note that CX is the same as the cx attribute of the circle; the same goes for CY and the cy attribute of the circle, as well as R and the r attribute of the circle. The small a character is used to define a segment of an elliptical arc. You can use an optional Z (or z) to close the path.The lowercase letter a denotes the beginning of an elliptical arc drawn relatively to the current position — or in our specific case:You can see the magic happening in this pen:See the Pen circle from path by Bryan Rasmussen.Hidden underneath the path is a circle with a red fill. As you play around with values of the path, you’ll see that circle as long as the path totally covers the circle (the path itself is a circle of the same size), and we’ll know that we’re doing things right.One thing you should also know is that as long as you are drawing relative arcs, you don’t need to repeat the a command for each arc you draw. When your first 7 inputs are done for your arc, the second 7 inputs will be taken for the next arc.You can try this out with the pen above by removing the second a in the path:a 25,25 0 1,1 50,025,25 0 1,1 -50,0This may look the same, but I prefer to leave it in until I am ready to finish a drawing, and this also helps me to keep track of where I am.How This Path WorksFirst, we move to an absolutely positioned X,Y coordinate in the image. It does not draw anything there — it just moves there. Remember that for a circle element CX, CY denotes the center of the circle; but as it happens in the elliptical arc, the true CX and CY of the arc will be calculated from the other properties of that arc.In other words, if we want our CX to be at 50 and our radius is 25, then we need to move to 50 – 25 (if we are drawing from left to right, of course). This means that our first arc is drawn from 25 X, 50 Y which results to our first arc being 25,25 0 1,0 50,0.Let’s break down what the value 25,25 0 1,0 50,0 of our arc actually means:25: The relative X radius of the arc;25: The relative Y radius of the arc;0 1,0: I’m not going to talk about the three middle values (rotation, large-arc-flag, and the sweep-flag properties) because they are not very important in the context of the current example as long as they are the same for both arcs;50: The ending X coordinate (relative) of the arc;0: The ending Y coordinate (relative) of the arc.The second arc is a 25,25 0 1,0 -50,0. Keep in mind that this arc will start drawing from wherever the last arc stopped drawing. Of course, the X and Y radius are the same (25), but the ending X coordinate is -50 of where the current one is.Obviously this circle could have been drawn in many different ways. This process of turning a circle into a path is known as decomposition. In the SVG 2 spec decomposition of a circle will be done with 4 arcs, however, the method it recommends is not possible to use yet, as it currently depends on a feature named segment-completing close path which has not yet been specified.In order to show you that we can draw the circle in a lot of ways, I have prepared a little pen with various examples:See the Pen all circles by Bryan Rasmussen.If you take a closer look, you’ll see our original circle along with five different examples of how to draw paths on top of that circle. Each path has a child desc element describing the use of CX, CY and R values to build the circle. The first example is the one we discussed here while three others use variations that should be comprehensible from reading the code; the last examples uses four semicircular arcs instead of two, replicating somewhat the process described in the SVG 2 spec linked above.The circles are layered on top of each other using SVG’s natural z-indexing of placing elements that come later in the markup on top of the ones that come earlier.If you click on the circular paths in the pen, the first click will print out how the path is structured to the console and add a class to the element so that you will see the stroke color of how the circle is drawn (you can see that the first circle is drawn with a starting wedge from the stroke). The second click will remove the circle so you have the ability to interact with the circle below.Each circle has a different fill color; the actual circle element is yellow and will say “You clicked on the circle” to the console whenever it is clicked on. You can also, of course, simply read the code as the desc elements are quite straightforward.Going From A Path To A CircleI suppose you’ve noticed that while there are many different ways to draw the circle, the paths used still look pretty similar. Often — especially in SVGs output from a drawing program — circles will be represented by paths. This is probably due to optimization of the graphics program code; once you have the code to draw a path you can draw anything, so just use that. This can lead to somewhat bloated SVGs that are hard to reason about.Recommended reading: “Tips For Creating And Exporting Better SVGs For The Web” by Sara SoueidanLet’s take the following SVG from Wikipedia as an example. When you look at the code for that file, you will see that it has a lot of editor cruft once you’ve run it through Jake Archibald’s SVGOMG! (which you can read more about here). You’ll end up with something like the following file which has been pretty optimized, but the circles in the document are still rendered as paths:See the Pen Wikipedia Screw Head Clutch Type A by Bryan Rasmussen.So, let’s see if we can figure out what those circles should be if they were actual circle elements given what we know about how paths work. The first path in the document is obviously not a circle while the next two are (showing just the d attribute):M39 20a19 19 0 1 1-38 0 19 19 0 1 1 38 0zM25 20a5 5 0 1 1-10 0 5 5 0 1 1 10 0zSo remembering that the second a can be left out, let’s rewrite these to make a little more sense. (The first path is the big circle.)M39 20a19 19 0 1 1-38 0a19 19 0 1 1 38 0zThose arcs are then obviously the following:aR R 0 1 1 – (R * 2) 0aR R 0 1 1 (R * 2) 0This means that our circle radius is 19, but what are our CX and CY values? I think our M39 is actually CX + R, which means that CX is 20 and CY is 20 too.Let’s say you add in a circle after all the paths like this:You will see that is correct, and that the red stroked circle covers exactly the large circle. The second circle path reformulated looks like this:M25 20a5 5 0 1 1-10 0 5 5 0 1 1 10 0zObviously, the radius is 5, and I bet our CX and CY values are the same as before: – 20.Note: If CX = 20, then CX + R = 25. The circle is sitting inside the bigger one at the center, so obviously it should have the same CX and CY values.Add the following circle at the end of the paths:You can now see that this is correct by taking a look at the following pen:See the Pen Wikipedia Screw Head Clutch Type A_ with example circles by Bryan Rasmussen.Now that we know what the circles should be, we can remove those unneeded paths and actually create the circles — as you can see here:See the Pen Wikipedia Screw Head Clutch Type A optimized by Bryan Rasmussen.Using Our Circular Path For Wrapping TextSo now that we have our circles in paths, we can wrap text on those paths. Below is a pen with the same paths as our previous “All Circles” pen, but with text wrapped on the path. Whenever you click on a path, that path will be deleted and the text will be wrapped on the next available path, like so:See the Pen all circles wrapped Text by Bryan Rasmussen.Looking at the different paths, you’ll see tiny differences between each one (more on that in a bit), but first there is a little cross-browser incompatibility to be seen — especially noticeable in the first path: Firefox Developer M (CX – R), CYa R,R 0 1,1 (R * 2),0a R,R 0 1,1 -(R * 2),0 This starts in the same position as the last one due to (R * 2), but it is running clockwise because we have set the sweep-flag property (marked in yellow) to 1.We‘ve seen how to wrap text on a single path in a circle. Let’s now take a look at how we can break up that path into two paths and the benefits you can get from that.Breaking Our Paths Into PartsThere are a lot of things you can do with the text in your path, i.e. achieving stylistic effects with tspan elements, setting the offset of the text, or animating the text. Basically, whatever you do will be constrained by the path itself. But by breaking up our multiarc paths into single arc paths, we can play around with the direction of our text, the z-indexing of different parts of our text, and achieving more complex animations.First, we are going to want to use another SVG image to show some of the effects. I will be using the diamond from the article on pointer events which I mentioned earlier. First, let’s show what it will look like with a single path circular text laid on top of it.Let’s assume that our circle is CX 295, CY 200, R 175. Now, following the Circular path method, we now see the following:M (CX – R), CYa R,R 0 1,1 (R * 2),0a R,R 0 1,1 -(R * 2),0See the Pen SVG Amethyst by Bryan Rasmussen.I’m not going to talk about the path or the text size, fill or stroke color. We should all understand that by now, and be able to make it be whatever we want it to be. But by looking at the text, we can see some downsides or limitations right away:The text all runs in one direction;It might be nice to have some of the text go behind the amethyst, especially where it says MAGAZINE. In order to make the ‘M’ and ‘E’ line up on the circle, the ‘A’ has to be on the side lower point of the amethyst, which feels sort of unbalanced in another way. (I feel like the ‘A’ should be precisely positioned and pointing down at that point.)If we want to fix these issues, we need to split our single path into two. In the following pen, I have separated the path into two paths, (and placed them into the defs area of the SVG for our textPaths to reference):See the Pen SVG Amethyst two paths by Bryan Rasmussen.Again, assuming our CX is 295, CY 200, R 175, then the two paths are in the format of the following (for the top semicircular path):M (CX – R), CYa R,R 0 1,1 (R * 2),0And the following for the bottom:M (CX + R), CYa R,R 0 1,1 -(R * 2),0However, we still have circular text that moves all in the same direction. To fix that for everything but Edge, all you have to do is to add the side=”right” attribute to the text element that holds the ‘MAGAZINE’ textPath.Making The Text Go Another DirectionIf we want to support as many browsers as we can, we have to alter the path and not rely on the side attribute which is not fully supported. What we can do is to copy our top semicircle path, but change the sweep from 1 to 0:Before:M 120, 200a 175,175 0 1,1 350,0After:M 120, 200a 175,175 0 1,0 350,0But our text is now drawn on the inner circle defined by the sweep and it won’t look so nice in different browsers. This means that we’re going to have to move the position of our path to align with the ‘S’ of ‘Smashing’, make the ending X of the path greater, and set some offset to the text. As you can see, there is also a little text difference between Firefox and the others which we can improve by increasing the textLength attribute on the text element, as well as removing whitespace from the textPath (since Firefox evidently thinks whitespace is meaningful).The solution:See the Pen SVG Amethyst two paths fixed by Bryan Rasmussen.Change The Z-Index Of Part Of Our Circular TextFinally, we want to make our text goes both in front and behind the amethyst. Well, that’s easy. Remember that SVG’s z-indexing of element is based by where they are in the markup? So if we have two elements, element 1 will be drawn behind element 2. Next, all we have to do is to move a text element up in our SVG markup so it is drawn before the amethyst.You can see the result below in which parts of the word ‘MAGAZINE’ are hidden by the lower point of the amethyst.See the Pen SVG Amethyst two paths z-index by Bryan Rasmussen.If you take a look at the markup, you can see that the lower semicircle of text has been moved to be before the path that draws the amethyst.Animating The Parts Of Our CircleSo now we have the ability to make circular text by completely controlling the directionality of the parts of our text by putting the text into two semicircles. This can, of course, also be exploited to make animations of the text. Making cross-browser SVG animations is really the subject of another article (or a lot more articles). These examples will only work in Chrome and Firefox because of using the SMIL-animations syntax instead of CSS keyframes or tools like Greensock. But it gives a good indicator of the effects you can achieve by animating the decomposed circle.Take the following pen:See the Pen SVG Amethyst two paths animated by Bryan Rasmussen.Please press the ‘Rerun’ button on the codepen to see the animation in action. The two parts of our circular text begin animating at the same time, but have a different duration so they end at different times. Because we are animating the textLength attribute, we have put two animate directives under each text — one for the text element (so Firefox will work) and one for the textpath element (so Chrome will work).ConclusionIn this article, we’ve seen how to turn a circle into a path and back again, in order to better understand when we need to optimize a path and when not. We’ve seen how turning the circle into a path frees us up to placing the text on the circular path, but also how to further split the circular path into semicircles and gain fuller control over directionality and animation of the component parts of our circular text.Further Reading on SmashingMag:Rethinking Responsive SVGAnimating SVG Files With SVGatorStyling And Animating SVGs With CSSManaging SVG Interaction With The Pointer Events Property Microsoft EdgeThe reason why the starting “S” of “Smashing” is sitting at that funny angle in the Firefox solution is that it is where we actually started drawing our path at (due to the v-R command we used). This is more obvious in the Chrome version where you can clearly see the first pie-shaped wedge of our circle that we drew: Chrome does not follow all the wedges, so this is the result when you change the text to be “Smashing Magazine”.The reason is that Chrome has a bug regarding inheritance of the textLength attribute declared on the parent text element. If you want them both to look the same, put the textLength attribute on the textPath element as well as the text. Why? Because it turns out that Firefox Developer has the same bug if the textLength attribute is not specified on the text element (this has been the case for some years now).Microsoft Edge has a totally different bug; it can’t handle whitespace in between the Text and the child TextPath element. Once you have removed whitespace, and put the textLength attribute on both the text and textPath elements, they will all look relatively the same (with small variations due to differences in default fonts and so forth). So, three different bugs on three different browsers — this is why people often prefer to work with libraries!The following pen shows how the problems can be fixed:See the Pen all circles wrapped Text fixed TextLength by Bryan Rasmussen.I’ve also removed the various fill colors because it makes it easier to see the text wrapping. Removing the fill colors means that my little function to allow you to cycle through the paths and see how they look won’t work unless I add a pointer-events=”all” attribute, so I’ve added those as well.Note: You can read more about the reasons for that in “Managing SVG Interaction With The Pointer Events Property” explained by Tiffany B. Brown.We’ve already discussed the wrapping of the multiarc path, so let’s now look at the others. Since we have one path we are wrapping on, the text will always move in the same direction. 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