Russians hope to reach Lake Vostok for the first time soon

first_img Citation: Russians hope to reach Lake Vostok for the first time soon (2011, January 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-01-russians-lake-vostok.html Lake Vostok is supersaturated with oxygen, with levels estimated to be around 50 times greater than an average freshwater lake. Lukin said the researchers hope to find live organisms in the lake, particularly in the mineralized water near the bottom. If life does exist there, the organisms would be “extremophiles,” with many adaptations to allow them to survive. If life is found in the lake, this would have implications for the possibilities of life on Jupiter’s moon Europa or Saturn’s satellite Enceladus, both of which have a similar environment.The Russian team are unsure when their drill will break through because the exact depth of the ice/water boundary is not known, but hope they will reach the water later this month and before the current Antarctic summer season ends. Their borehole is currently 3650 meters deep, which is estimated to be approximately 100 meters above the lake surface. The next stages will use a mechanical drill and kerosene freon to get down to 3725 meters, and a new thermal drill head with a clean silicon-oil fluid to drill the rest of the way. The thermal drill head will be fitted with a camera. They are able to drill around four meters a day. Lake Vostok is approximately 250 kilometers long and up to 50 kilometers wide (around the size of Lake Ontario in North America), and is up to 800 meters deep. It is isolated from all the other 145 or so subglacial lakes in Antarctica. The lake has been sealed off from the rest of the world by the ice sheet for at least 14 million years.Earlier plans to drill into the lake were squashed by the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat (ATS) because of concerns the lake might become contaminated. A team of astrobiologists from NASA concluded in 2003 that such an exploration could be dangerous and lead to contamination because the high oxygen and nitrogen content of the lake would cause the water to “fizz up” like a shaken soda can. Now, the ATS has approved the environmental evaluation for the new attempt by scientists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in St. Petersburg.AARI spokesman Valery Lukin, Director of the Russian Antarctic Expedition (RAE), said they have invented a way of sampling the lake without the risk of contamination. When the drill reaches the lake, the water pressure will “push the working body and drilling fluid upwards in the borehole,” where it will freeze. The researchers will then return during the next Antarctic summer to remove the frozen water for analysis. RADARSAT image of Lake Vostok. Image: NASA. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Panoramic photo of Vostok Station showing the layout of the camp. Credit: Todd Sowers LDEO, Columbia University, Palisades, New York.center_img Lake Vostok life to be studied (PhysOrg.com) — Lake Vostok, an untouched lake in Antarctica, is soon to be reached for the first time. Russian scientists are drilling down to the oxygen-rich lake, which is buried beneath a sheet of ice almost four kilometers thick, and extract water samples for analysis. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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DonanimHaber leaks data on new AMD processors

first_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com So, it can be no surprise when data about a new processor is leaked. The newest leak come to us from DonanimHaber. The site has published a report that details the information on the newest mobile processor that AMD plans to release later in this year. The processor, which has been dubbed the A8-3530MX is expected to launch as part of the company’s Llano notebook APU line of machines, which will feature a set of four processing cores and an integrated graphics processor that has the Northbridge components embedded in the chipset.The four cores in the CPU will each be capable of operating at a base frequency of 1.9GHz. The processors can get a boost, with the help of a TurboCore they will be able to reach a top speed of up to 2.6GHz. Either way, the processor will be paired with 4MB of L2 cache.The graphics are being handled by a Radeon HD 6620G, which has been clocked at 444MHz. This is actually a bit slower than some of the current options, which can be clocked to 500MHz that you will find inside the low-voltage E-240 and E-350 machines. The system will also be capable of Blu-ray 3D playback.No word yet on which machines this processor will make its way into or what the machines will cost. Explore further Citation: DonanimHaber leaks data on new AMD processors (2011, May 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-donanimhaber-leaks-amd-processors.html New Low-Power Intel Pentium M And Intel Celeron M Processors (PhysOrg.com) — When it comes to the world of computer processors it is all about what it going to happen next. Even if the current generation of processors can do everything that you want them to that tantalizing prospect of what else a new processor could do for you is one that simply cannot be resisted. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Tradeoff coding for quantum communication provides more benefits than previously thought

first_img The scientists, Mark M. Wilde and Patrick Hayden of McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, and Saikat Guha of Raytheon BBN Technologies in Cambridge, Massachusetts, have published their study on the performance gains of trade-off coding in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.As the scientists explain in their paper, the quantitative study of a channel’s ability to transmit information was initiated by Claude Shannon in 1948. But while Shannon’s theory can successfully determine the capacity of a purely classical channel, it does not account for the quantum properties of channels that are inherent to optical-fiber or free-space communication. Since quantum effects can increase the rate of information transmission, Shannon’s law does not determine the true channel capacity. In the past several years, scientists have worked on extending Shannon’s theory to quantum channels in an attempt to determine the true capacity of communication channels, but more work is needed to fully understand the nature of quantum information transmission.To better understand channel capacities, scientists have also been investigating specific coding strategies that use a combination of classical and quantum techniques, with the goal of finding a strategy that maximizes data transmission rates for both classical and quantum data.“Suppose you would like to send photons at different time instances over a fiber-optic cable (and suppose further that you’re allowed as many ‘uses’ of the channel as you want, with each time instance being a use),” Wilde told Phys.org. “You might want to use the channels for reliably transmitting classical data (as is the case nowadays), or you might want to use them for reliably sending quantum data (hopefully at some future point when quantum computers become ubiquitous in society). Or you might want to use the channels for transmitting both kinds of data. In this latter case, there will be a fundamental trade-off between how much classical data you can send and how much quantum data you can send. Ideally, we’d like to know in principle what are the maximal possible rates for communicating both kinds of data simultaneously, and this is what we’re looking at in the paper.” (Phys.org) — In optical communication systems, the overall performance depends on the strategy used to transmit photons from one location to another. In previous attempts to optimize this performance, scientists found that there is a trade-off between three transmission strategies: classical communication (measured in bits), quantum communication (measured in qubits), and shared entanglement (measured in ebits). But previous research has also suggested that the benefits of using this knowledge to implement “trade-off coding” strategies were too small and the coding too complex to have practical value. Now in a new study, scientists have found that trade-off coding strategies can in fact have remarkable performance gains when communicating over an optical channel compared with other traditional optical communication strategies. The finding could lead to transmitting classical and quantum information simultaneously at much higher rates than is possible with other techniques. Copyright 2012 Phys.Org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. One strategy for maximizing both classical and quantum data transmission rates is trade-off coding, in which both encoded bits and qubits can be fed into the same channel input. This ability allows for using a small fraction of the overall available photons for the quantum part of the code, while using the rest for classical data transmission. If the code were to use more photons than needed for the quantum component, then these photons would effectively go to waste when instead they could be used for the classical component. The strategy differs from the simpler time-sharing strategy, in which the channel uses are divided up so that for some number of them, you use the best possible strategy for communicating classical data, and for the remainder of the channel uses, you use the best strategy for sending quantum data. As the scientists explain, the trade-off coding strategy can be thought of as a “power-sharing” strategy that packs in extra classical information in a clever way. Although this trade-off sounds advantageous, previous research during the last decade suggested that the benefits might generally be very small. “Igor Devetak and Peter Shor had actually calculated the optimal trade-offs for a dephasing channel, a type of quantum noise dominant in superconducting qubits, for example, and the benefits were so small that it wouldn’t really be that useful to employ a trade-off coding strategy for these channels,” Wilde said. “However, the benefits of trade-off coding depend on the channel over which you’re sending information. In the present work, we show that the gains are surprisingly high for a class of channels known as bosonic channels, which are a quantum-mechanical model for free-space or fiber-optic communication.”Although trade-off coding requires more complex encoding and decoding methods, the new results show that the pay-off is great enough that it should be considered in any practical implementation. In the future, the scientists hope to lay out a full, structured architecture for implementing trade-off coding for bosonic channels.“The payoff is that communication rates can be significantly higher than one might naively expect when employing a time-sharing strategy,” Wilde said. “In our paper, we show that this is possible in principle if the only constraints are the laws of quantum mechanics, but we did not outline a practical encoder/receiver architecture in terms of known optical components that can realize these gains. This is the subject of ongoing research.” (Left) Previous research showed that the transmission rate of an optimal trade-off coding strategy (blue line) for dephasing channels is not much higher than that of a time-sharing strategy (green line). (Right) The new study shows that the transmission rate of a trade-off strategy (blue line) for bosonic channels can be much higher than that of a time-sharing strategy (dashed red line). Image credit: Wilde, et al. ©2012 American Physical Society Entanglement can help in classical communicationcenter_img Explore further More information: Mark M. Wilde, et al. “Information Trade-Offs for Optical Quantum Communication.” PRL 108, 140501 (2012). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.140501 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Trade-off coding for quantum communication provides more benefits than previously thought (2012, April 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-04-trade-off-coding-quantum-benefits-previously.htmllast_img read more

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High frame rate cinema booed but shows will go on

first_imgCritics’ arguments over whether a film’s actors, screenplay, or music score are worth the price of the ticket have been overshadowed by controversy over the technology used for making the film. Comments are mixed, from lukewarm to thumbs-down. The movie-making technology in question involves a change from 24 frames per second (fps) to 48 fps. HFR (high frame rate) technology is the “future of film,” say proponents, and a controversy was set off at last month’s Las Vegas showing of director Peter Jackson’s The Hobbit. Like the famous director, James Cameron, Jackson believes that HFR films are the next important chapter in cinema. Panasonic Introduces Next-Generation Blu-ray Disc Player Citation: High frame rate cinema booed but shows will go on (2012, May 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-high-cinema-booed.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Unlike movies filmed at an industry standard rate of 24 fps, the use of HFR technology offers less flicker, motion blur and stuttered movement. Attempts to reduce motion blur and flicker found in films can only raise the film experience. The impact on 3-D is especially trumpeted, in resolving the medium‘s problematic issues that make viewing difficult for some people. Higher frame rates of 48 FPS and 60 FPS will soon be the norm, say supporters. At last month’s brief preview at CinemaCon 2012 of Jackson’s new film, however, which was presented in 48fps, some critics voiced harsh reactions. While their words differed, their basic opinion is that the 48 fps technique renders a film that looks phony like TV soap operas. Some more specific observations were that the film lacked enough color contrast and that actors seemed “overlit,” according to a report in Variety.As interesting is the response from Jackson to the criticism: He feels that this is new technology that the viewer’s eye just needs to get used to. What is more, there is no going back on what he notes is a significant step forward. Shooting and projecting at 48 fps is said to make the film “much easier to watch, especially in 3-D. We’ve been watching HOBBIT tests and dailies at 48 fps now for several months, and we often sit through two hours worth of footage without getting any eye strain from the 3-D,” he wrote in Facebook.An earlier study from California State University of 400 filmgoers suggested that watching 3-D films raised the risk of eyestrain, headache or trouble with vision. Proponents of 48 fps believe it is just a matter of viewers adjusting. What critics find as “fake,” is verbally recast as “hyper-realism.”Jackson has written that “You get used to this new look very quickly and it becomes a much more lifelike and comfortable viewing experience.”If HFR is the future, then in practical terms that future may require theaters to upgrade their equipment. According to The Rolling Stone, some theater owners are skeptical about upgrading their equipment. Writing in Extreme Tech, David Cardinal said any moves to upgrade theater projectors to 48 fps, even at a cost of several thousand dollars per screen, though, would be worth it for the operators if it gives theater goers a “premium” experience. The word “if” hovers over the question of how quickly moviegoers will realize they are in for a better future of watching films with 48 fps. The swing for and against may be influenced, though, by those who are put off by present-day 3-D as a source of eyestrain. Jackson said 48 fps is more gentle on the eyes.Paul Martinovic in Den of Geek says that the advantage of 48 fps technology making 3-D more watchable is key. Reducing 3-D eye irritants will be a step forward. People who have up to this time avoided 3-D can now get back “into the fray” free of the shackles of blurry vision,” he said. That alone would make it an economically smart move for industry adoption, he added. © 2012 Phys.Orglast_img read more

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Remnants of supernova explosion found in ancient magnetotactic bacteria

first_img More information: Abstract: X8.00002 : Search for Supernova 60Fe in the Earth’s Fossil Record, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR13/Event/192798Approximately 2.8 Myr before the present our planet was subjected to the debris of a supernova explosion. The terrestrial proxy for this event was the discovery of live atoms of 60Fe in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust. The signature for this supernova event should also reside in magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetofossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria extant at the time of the Earth- supernova interaction, provided the bacteria preferentially uptake iron from fine-grained iron oxides and ferric hydroxides. Using empirically derived microfossil concentrations in a deep-sea drill core, we deduce a conservative estimate of the 60Fe fraction as 60Fe/Fe =3.6×10−15. This value sits comfortably within the sensitivity limit of present accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) capabilities. This talk will detail the present status of our 60Fe AMS search in magnetofossils and (possibly) show our initial results.via Nature News Bishop analyzed sample cores from strata roughly 100,000 years apart within deposits from 1.7 to 3.3 Mya. Iron-60 is not a product of any processes occurring here on earth, so any supply of it can be assumed to from a non-terrestrial source. Bishop was able to extract out all the iron-60 of biological origin, and quantify it with a mass spectrometer. The amounts found were small, but they were enough to reliably date the sample to a period around 2.2 Mya. Other researchers, peripheral to the project, were then able to suggest a possible candidate star that dates to this period may lie in the Scorpius-Centaurus stellar association, roughly 130 pcs (424 light-years) from the sun.Iron-60 has a half-life of 2.6 million years, and makes an ideal clock for dating deposits on this timescale. It undergoes beta decay to form cobalt-60. A likely source for the iron concentrations in the deep-sea cores could be magnetotactic bacteria. These creatures incorporate crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) in the form of long chains inside specialized organelles called magnetosomes. These organelles are used to sense the earth’s magnetic field and possibly navigate in response to it. Magnetite-containing bacteria are today usually found in transition zones where oxygen-rich waters meet anoxic waters. These discoveries paint a dramatic scene of supernova explosions raining down radioactive debris on the ancient earth. These deposits then filtered through the water where they also got incorporated into various iron-sulfide reactions, or manganese nodules still mined today. Many people might remember Howard Hughes’ Glomar Explorer project, and the dramatic CIA efforts to find the wreck of the Soviet K-129 nuclear submarine. Mining the iron-rich manganese nodules was the convenient alibi the Glomar explorer used while it searched for the secret sub. Exploration of the deep links between the earth and its cosmic neighbors will undoubtedly continue to give tremendous insight into events both here and beyond. Exploding star missing from formation of solar system Explore further (Phys.org) —Back in 2004, German scientists discovered traces of supernova ejecta that had been deposited in the deep-sea ferromanganese crust of the pacific ocean. They dated the supernova event to 2.8 million years ago (Mya), using estimates from the decay of iron-60 radioisotope. They were also able to estimate the distance of the supernova event to 10 parsecs (pc) from our sun, based on the amount of iron-60 deposited. At the April 14th meeting of the American Physical Society, a Canadian scientist, Shawn Bishop, reported finding traces of iron-60 of supernova origin in the fossilized remains of a common bacteria. By accurately dating the sediment cores in which the samples were found, Bishop appears to have discovered the first biological signature of an ancient supernova event, and may even be able to link it to a specific exploding star. © 2013 Phys.org Citation: Remnants of supernova explosion found in ancient magnetotactic bacteria (2013, April 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-04-remnants-supernova-explosion-ancient-magnetotactic.html Credit: NASA This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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More evidence of sound waves carrying mass

first_img For many years physicists have felt confident that sound waves carry energy—but there was no evidence to suggest they also carry mass. There seemed to be no reason to believe that they would generate a gravitational field. But that changed last year when Nicolis and another physicist Riccardo Penco found evidence that suggested conventional thinking was wrong. They had used quantum field theory to show that sound waves moving through superfluid helium carried a small amount of mass with them. More specifically, they found that phonons interacted with a gravitational field in a way that forced them to carry mass along as they moved through the material. In this new effort, the researchers report evidence that suggests the same results hold true for most materials.Using effective field theory, they showed that a single-watt sound wave that moved for one second in water would carry with it a mass of approximately 0.1 milligrams. They further note that the mass was found to be a fraction of the total mass of a system that moved with the wave, as it was displaced from one site to another.Importantly, the researchers did not actually measure mass being carried by a sound wave—they used math to prove it happens. For real-world measurement, they suggest experiments could be conducted with sound waves as they move through a Bose-Einstein condensate made of very cold atoms—such a setup should show enough mass being carried to allow for measurement. But they also note a better approach might be to measure the mass being carried by sound waves moving through the Earth as part of a quake. That much sound could carry billions of kilograms of mass, which might be visible on devices that measure gravitational fields. Citation: More evidence of sound waves carrying mass (2019, March 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-evidence-mass.html Credit: CC0 Public Domain A trio of researchers at Columbia University has found more evidence showing that sound waves carry mass. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, Angelo Esposito, Rafael Krichevsky and Alberto Nicolis describe using effective field theory techniques to confirm the results found by a team last year attempting to measure mass carried by sound waves. Researchers suggest phonons may have mass and perhaps negative gravity Journal information: Physical Review Letterscenter_img Explore further © 2019 Science X Network This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Angelo Esposito et al. Gravitational Mass Carried by Sound Waves, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.084501last_img read more

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Astronomers investigate jet kinematics of the blazar 4C2135

first_img © 2019 Science X Network More information: Taeseok Lee et al. Jet Kinematics of the Quasar 4C +21.35 from Observations with the KaVA Very Long Baseline Interferometry Array. arXiv:1904.02894 [astro-ph.GA]. arxiv.org/abs/1904.02894 Citation: Astronomers investigate jet kinematics of the blazar 4C+21.35 (2019, April 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-astronomers-jet-kinematics-blazar-4c2135.html Using very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI), an international team of astronomers has conducted a kinematic study of a jet of the blazar 4C+21.35. The research, presented in a paper published April 5 on the arXiv pre-print repository, sheds more light on the nature of this quasar and its jet. Fast, very high-energy gamma-ray flare detected from the blazar BL Lacertae A 22 GHz KaVA image of 4C +21.35. Credit: Lee et al., 2019. Blazars are very compact quasars associated with supermassive black holes at the centers of active, giant elliptical galaxies. Based on their optical emission properties, astronomers divide blazars into two classes: flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) that feature prominent and broad optical emission lines, and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs), which do not.In general, blazars belong to a larger group of active galaxies that host active galactic nuclei (AGN), and their characteristic features are relativistic jets pointed almost exactly toward the Earth. However, the detailed mechanisms of ejection and collimation of jets are still poorly understood, and more studies of this phenomenon are required to improve our knowledge on the subject.At a redshift of 0.433, the blazar 4C+21.35, also known as PKS 1222+216, is a nearby very-high-energy (VHE) flat-spectrum radio quasar. Previous studies have revealed that the object exhibits super-luminal apparent jet motions with apparent speeds ranging from three to 25 times greater than the speed of light (c) at milliarcsecond scales. Observations of this source also detected three gamma-ray flares—two occured in 2010 and one in 2014.A group of astronomers led by Taeseok Lee of Seoul National University, South Korea, decided to observe 4C+21.35 using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) array (KaVA). The aim of this observational campaign was to characterize in detail the kinematics of the blazar and to investigate the connection between kinematics and gamma-ray activity in this object.”Since 4C+21.35 shows ongoing vigorous γ-ray activity and blazars are famous for their fast variability, persistent and frequent monitoring of the source structure is essential. We therefore studied the kinematics of the jet of 4C+21.3 with bi-weekly radio interferometric mapping observations, providing an unprecedented density of data,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.KaVA observations between mid-2014 and mid-2016 have revealed that at 22 GHz, 4C+21.35 has a compact straight jet, uncovering three components in the inner jet and two in the blob. All the jet components show linear outward motion—the further from the core, the faster they move, with apparent speeds reaching 14.4 c.The researchers found a connection between the innermost component that became visible in early 2016 and the gamma-ray flare spotted in November 2014. They report that the timing of the ejection of the new component is consistent with this flare.”Extrapolating the position of the newly emerged component (component C in Figure1) back to zero distance from the core suggests an ejection in 2014.5 ± 3.4, assuming a constant component speed, consistent with the peak time of the mid-November 2014 γ-ray flare,” the paper reads.Furthermore, KaVA observations at 43 GHz detected four inner jet components with apparent speeds from 3.5 to 6.8 c. However, when compared to the results from previous studies, the newly calculated apparent speeds turned out to be about 50 percent lower.According to the authors of the paper, this “loss of speed” could be a consequence of the fact that an AGN jet is not a group of discrete, point-like sources, but a complex continuous distribution of matter. They added that the discrepancy in the result could be also due temporal undersampling, which often leads to misidentification of components or overestimation of apparent jet speeds.All in all, the study highlights the importance of high cadence observations in order to avoid misunderstanding the jet kinematics. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Evidence found of fish swimming in unison 50 million years ago

first_img Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Evidence found of fish swimming in unison 50 million years ago (2019, May 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-evidence-fish-unison-million-years.html Researchers claim evidence suggests cichlid fish evolved long after Gondwana rifted apart To test whether the fish had been swimming in unison, the researchers took measurements of the fish and developed a computer simulation. They ran simulations under 1000 different scenarios (varying water flow, spatial distribution, etc.). The simulations showed the fish swimming in unison following the same two rules as modern fish. They suggest that their simulations provide evidence of fish swimming in unison during the Eocene—probably for the same reason that fish do it today, to reduce their chances of being eaten by a predator. Credit: © Mizumoto et al./Proceedings of the Royal Society B Credit: © Mizumoto et al./Proceedings of the Royal Society B Scientists studying animals such as birds, fish and insects that fly not only in formations but with some degree of uniformity have found that they all follow two simple rules: avoid running into neighbors, and mimic the actions of the rest of the group. It is not known when such behaviors first evolved, but evidence now reported by the team with this new effort suggests it goes back at least 50 million years.The researchers came upon the stone slab preserving the fossils while visiting the Oishi Fossils Gallery of Mizuta Memorial Museum in Japan. After gaining permission to study the slab, the team found that there were 259 fossilized fish embedded in the stone that had already been dated. They identified them as Erismatopterus levatus, a tiny fish that once inhabited intermountain lakes. The specimens in the slab appeared to be juveniles, but there was no evidence indicating how they had been entombed together and so quickly—the researchers suggest it might have happened as the result of a collapsing underwater sand formation. The researchers were intrigued by the positioning of the fish—almost all of them were swimming in the same direction in a pattern reminiscent of modern fish that swim in uniform schools. Explore further More information: Nobuaki Mizumoto et al. Inferring collective behaviour from a fossilized fish shoal, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0891 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: © Mizumoto et al./Proceedings of the Royal Society B A team of researchers from Arizona State University working with a group from the Oishi Fossils Gallery of Mizuta Memorial Museum in Japan has found evidence of fish swimming in unison approximately 50 million years ago. In their paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of a slab of stone containing an entire school of fossilized fish and what they found.last_img read more

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Teen Gets Life Sentence For Killing Police Off

first_imgTeen Gets Life Sentence For Killing Police Officer In… by NPR News Bill Chappell 8.21.19 3:57pm A Baltimore County judge has sentenced Dawnta Harris to a life term in prison for the murder of police Officer Amy Caprio. Harris was 16 when the stolen Jeep he was driving ran over Caprio, 29, in the spring of 2018. Within days of Caprio’s death, Harris was charged as an adult, facing a count of first-degree murder. If the sentence withstands an appeal, Harris would be able to seek parole. In the past decade, the Supreme Court has issued several rulings that struck down mandatory terms of life in prison without parole for felons who committed homicide as juveniles.On the day Caprio died, she was investigating a report of a suspicious vehicle in a neighborhood that had recently been hit by several burglaries. She tracked down a black Jeep Wrangler, with Harris at the wheel. At the time, police say, three other suspects were burglarizing a nearby home.An arrest had seemed imminent when the Jeep stopped at the end of the cul-de-sac. After parking her patrol car to block the exit, Caprio got out, drew her gun and stood in front of the car, ordering Harris to get out of the Jeep. After reviewing body cam footage of the incident, police said that Harris had at first seemed to be obeying Caprio’s order to get out — but then he suddenly got back in his seat and drove straight at her. Caprio was able to fire a single shot into the Jeep’s windshield before she was fatally struck.Harris was arrested shortly afterwards; in an hours-long interview with police, he admitted that he panicked during the confrontation with Caprio, The Baltimore Sun reports. “Three others, identified as Harris’ accomplices, also face murder charges,” member station WYPR reported when Harris was convicted in May. “Under Maryland law, if someone’s killed during a burglary, accomplices can be found guilty of the slaying along with the killer.”Those three suspects are also being charged as adults, according to the Baltimore County Police Department.Harris did not speak in court on Wednesday; instead, his lawyer read aloud a statement in which Harris said he was sorry, according to reporter Abby Isaacs of local TV station WMAR. Isaacs adds that Harris’ defense team plans to appeal — and that they’re “grateful he can spend part of his time in Patuxent Institution’s Youth Program, which dedicates more resources to counseling and rehabilitation.”Responding to Wednesday’s sentencing, Baltimore County Councilman David Marks — who represents the neighborhood where the killing took place — issued a statement:”No penalty can bring back Officer Caprio or eliminate the pain and suffering inflicted on Officer Caprio’s family and the Perry Hall neighborhood I represent. I would like to thank the prosecutors who pursued the toughest sanctions allowed by law.”The case has unfolded as Baltimore deals with the fallout from the death of Freddie Gray after being taken into police custody, while also coping with a tragically high murder rate and persistent claims of police misconduct.And as the Sun reports, “The murder of a white police woman by a black teenager set off a firestorm of debate, much of it racially charged.”Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR.last_img read more

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its one sketch for a good time

first_imgCelebrating 25 years of success, Gallery Escape has organised a show titled Drawing 2014: Seven Decades of Indian Drawing, featuring drawings by over hundred Indian contemporary artists spanning over seven decades. The show is co-curated by Prayag Shukla along with Annapurna Garimella and Sindhura Jois DM from Jackfruit Research and Design, Bangalore. The exhibition  will display works dating from 1947 to the present in which drawing is presented as a broad and inclusive practice. Along with works on single sheets of paper, there will be artists’ books, studies for other projects, multiples, laser drawings, animation and more. This breadth allows curators and viewers to understand how an academic practice moves between the pedagogic and the conceptual realms and between established and experimental ways of working. The exhibition spans a broad expanse of time and seeks to evaluate modern and contemporary art through the medium of drawing. It is to perceive how Indian artists have adopted and experimented with ideas and materials which are brought from elsewhere. It also questions about art practices. What is Indian art today? What are the possibilities that drawing offers? How does an artist perceive drawing as a work of art and how does he or she distinguish drawing from any other work of art? By asking such questions, the exhibition seeks to document, analyze and celebrate several art historically distinct Indian approaches to drawing.Gallery Espace was started in 1989 by Renu Modi at the suggestion of the Husain himself and was one of the first art galleries in India to introduce variable lighting and sound systems, in recognition of the crucial factor that is the environment within which a work of art is displayed. Apart from this expansive show, there will be several collateral/outreach events that will reflect on the significance of drawings in art and other disciplines.When: 10 – 28 NovemberWhere: IGNCA, JanpathTiming: 11 am – 7 pmlast_img read more

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