Underlying psychological traits could explain why political satire tends to be liberal

first_img“Everywhere I went, I was asked this question, and I had never been satisfied with my response. Digging into the literature on the psychological profiles of liberals and conservatives opened a window into a new explanatory mechanism – that the ‘liberal bias’ of satire does not stem from the content, target, or function of those jokes, but rather from the rhetorical structure of humor itself – especially in the case of irony.”In the study, 305 participants watched and evaluated a series of jokes about a variety of apolitical topics. For each topic, the researchers crafted two types of joke: one version used irony to humorous effect, while the other used exaggeration.For example, some participants viewed this irony-based joke:The other participants viewed this exaggeration-based joke:After evaluating the jokes, the participants then completed measures of need for cognition, tolerance for ambiguity, need to evaluate, sense of humor, and political ideology.Young and her colleagues found that more conservative participants tended to show less appreciation of both forms of jokes.This relationship was partially explained by need for cognition and sense of humor. In other words, conservatives tended to agree with statements such as “I only think as hard as I have to” and “People who tell jokes are a pain in the neck,” which in turn was associated with less positive evaluations of the jokes.“The study provides empirical evidence that conservatives and liberals differ in their appreciation and comprehension of humor, especially in the case of irony. Even when the subject matter is not political at all, conservatives are less appreciative of incongruity-based humorous texts than liberals are,” Young told PsyPost.“This difference is due in part to the fact that liberals and conservatives have different underlying psychological and personality traits that shape how they interact with messages in the environment. Liberals tend to be higher in need for cognition.”“They are also more likely to value the production and consumption of humor in general. In this study, both of these traits accounted — in part — for liberals’ higher appreciation of both irony and exaggeration, compared to conservatives.”The study — like all research — includes some limitations. Though need for cognition explains some of the relationship, “much of the impact of conservatism on humor appreciation remains unaccounted for,” the researchers said.It is also possible that the format of the jokes reminded participants of The Daily Show, Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, or Saturday Night Live‘s Weekend Update.“It is very possible that the format and visual cue of the comic behind a desk signaled to conservative viewers that this content was similar in spirit and intent to that of late-night comedy (hence, it may have been perceived as left-leaning even though the jokes were not political),” Young said.“This might explain conservatives’ lower appreciation of the content. Future research could explore various novel formats to avoid that confound.”The study, “Psychology, Political Ideology, and Humor Appreciation: Why Is Satire So Liberal?” was authored by Dannagal G. Young, Benjamin E. Bagozzi, Abigail Goldring, Shannon Poulsen, and Erin Drouin. Share on Twitter Share Share on Facebook The need for cognition — a psychological term used to describe the enjoyment of thinking and analyzing problems — could help explain the differences in humor appreciation between liberals and conservatives.According to new research in Psychology of Popular Media Culture, political conservatives tend to score lower on a measure of need for cognition, which is related to their lack of appreciation for irony and exaggeration.“Having studied the content, effects, and psychological processing of political humor and satire for 20 years, I could never escape the question of why political satire tends to be liberal,” said study author Dannagal G. Young, an associate professor at the University of Delaware and author of the forthcoming book Irony and Outrage: The Polarized Landscape of Rage, Fear, and Laughter in the United States.center_img Email LinkedIn Pinterestlast_img read more

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UK study deems 20% of primary care antibiotics inappropriate

first_imgAt least 20% of all antibiotics prescribed in UK primary care could be classified as inappropriate, according to new research published by Public Health England (PHE).The research appears in a study published yesterday in a special supplement of the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, along with four other studies on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in English primary care. Those studies found that more than two thirds of antibiotic prescriptions were linked to conditions of the respiratory tract and urinary tract infections, but in a third of all prescriptions no clinical justification was documented.Respiratory conditions, including sore throat, cough, sinusitis, and ear infection, had the most inappropriate prescriptions.While the amount of inappropriate prescribing varied widely, all practices included in the analysis were found to prescribe antibiotics when they weren’t necessary. The authors of the study say this suggests that all practices in England have the potential to reduce antibiotic prescribing without withholding antibiotics for those patients who truly need them.In 2016, the British government called for cutting the amount of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) in half by 2020. The authors say that, to meet that goal, they first needed to quantify the extent of the problem.A similar study was conducted in 2016 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with the same purpose. That study found that approximately 30% of all oral antibiotics prescribed in US outpatient settings are inappropriate.Based on the findings of the new study, total antibiotic prescribing in English primary care would need to be reduced by 10% to meet the UK government’s goal, PHE officials say.      “This publication highlights the role GPs can play, and I urge all practices to look at ways they can reduce their inappropriate prescribing levels to help make sure the antibiotics that save lives today can save lives tomorrow,” PHE medical director Paul Cosford, MB BS, said in a PHE press release.Identifying inappropriate prescribingFor the study, PHE researchers analyzed antibiotic prescribing data from 2013 through 2015 recorded in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a primary care electronic database that contains the electronic medical records of more than 11 million UK patients. They identified inappropriate prescribing events by comparing prescriptions against treatment guidelines, comparing the actual proportions of GP consultations that resulted in a prescription with the ideal proportions derived from expert opinion, and identifying high prescribers and variations in prescribing practices.The researchers then used three different levels of estimates for inappropriate prescribing. The most conservative scenario was based on the most generous estimates of antibiotic appropriateness from the experts, while the least conservative scenario was based on the strictest estimates of the experts. A middle scenario split the difference.Overall, data on more than 3.7 million prescriptions from 260 (74.5%) out of 349 English primary care practices that contributed to THIN during the study period were included for analysis. Only 22.6% of these prescriptions could be identified as appropriate or inappropriate; others couldn’t be analyzed because they were not covered by guidelines or there wasn’t enough information about the patients or their symptoms. More than 33% couldn’t be assessed because they lacked an informative diagnostic code.Under the most conservative scenario, 8.8% of all antibiotic prescriptions during the study period were classified as inappropriate. Under the least conservative scenario, 23.1% of prescriptions were considered inappropriate, and 15.4% were considered inappropriate under the middle scenario.In addition, inappropriate prescribing was identified in all included practices, ranging from a minimum of 3.6% of a practice’s prescriptions in the most conservative scenario to as high as 52.9% in the least conservative scenario. No relationship between the practices’ antibiotic prescribing rates and their proportions of inappropriate prescriptions was found.Unsurprisingly, the conditions found to contribute most to inappropriate prescribing were respiratory illnesses, which are typically caused by viruses but are frequently targets of unnecessary prescribing. In the middle scenario, these conditions included sore throat (23% of all identified inappropriate prescriptions), cough (22.2%), sinusitis (7.6%), and acute otitis media in patients between 6 months and 18 years old (5.7%). These rankings remained the same in the other scenarios.In another analysis in the supplement that looked at antibiotic consultations, the researchers found that most primary care practices in England prescribe considerably more antibiotics for several selected conditions than would be expected based on guidelines and expert opinion. For example, an antibiotic was prescribed in 41% of all acute cough consultations, when the “ideal” prescribing rate for that condition would be 10%. The difference between actual and ideal prescribing was even more pronounced for rhinosinusitis (82% vs. 11%), acute otitis media (88% vs. 17%), acute bronchitis (82% vs. 13%), and acute sore throat (59% vs. 13%).Even though only 22% of the prescriptions could be classified as appropriate or inappropriate, the authors of the study say their research indicates the existence of “substantial inappropriate antibiotic prescribing” and the potential for reductions. “The real reduction potential is probably higher, and it is important to note that the totality of inappropriate prescribing is a moving target that may change with better data, new specific insights, and novel diagnostic tools becoming available,” they write.Improved documentation, better diagnostic toolsIn an accompanying commentary, Dame Sally Davies, the chief medical officer for England, noted that the findings were discussed at a joint PHE/Department of Health workshop and that a consensus was reached that at least 20% of antibiotic prescriptions in English primary care are currently inappropriate. But she thinks that estimate is likely conservative, and she says the PHE analysis indicates that efforts to reduce inappropriate prescribing should be made throughout primary care.Efforts to pick some of the low-hanging fruit have already begun. In January, PHE and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) issued new guidance advising against the use of antibiotics in most cases of acute sore throat.Davies would also like to see England aim higher than a 10% reduction in primary care antibiotic prescribing. By comparison, Belgium is aiming to reduce the number of antibiotic prescriptions by at least 25% by 2020, while the Netherlands is aiming for a 45% reduction by 2020.”As microorganisms do not respect borders, we can only tackle this if every country and sector plays its part in full,” Davies writes.Achieving those kind of reductions in England, Davies says, will require improved documentation for why antibiotics are being prescribed, along with reliable point-of-care tests and diagnostic tools that can help clinicians identify those who are most likely to benefit from the drugs.See also:Feb 27 J Antimicrob Chemother supplementFeb 27 J Antimicrob Chemother commentaryFeb 27 PHE press releaselast_img read more

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East Penn Names Metzger Sales Manager Automotive Cables and Diversified Products

first_imgDeMoulpied comes to LSI from the Private Client Services practice of Ernst & Young where he managed strategy & operations improvement engagements for privately held client businesses. Some of his prior roles include VP of strategic development, director of strategic initiatives, and Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt at OptumHealth, UnitedHealth Group’s health services business, as well as Lean Six Sigma Black Belt at General Electric, where he applied operations improvement principles to customer service, supply chain and product development. A successful entrepreneur, deMoulpied is also the founder of PrestoFresh, a Cleveland-based e-commerce food/grocery business.  LSI President Brett Tennar says, “Steve’s success in developing operational strategies that improves the bottom line, builds teamwork, reduces waste and ensures quality product development and distribution checks many of the boxes of what we were looking for in a COO. This, coupled with his career in the Air Force working with highly technical systems and his in-depth understanding of Lean Six Sigma and Business Process Management sealed our offer. As our tagline states, our products are Powered by Science. This data driven approach is one reason why our company has grown exponentially as we employ the most advanced technology to product development. I am confident that Steve is the right person to drive operational strategy for our diverse and growing brands.” Advertisement LYON STATION, PA — East Penn Manufacturing Company recently announced the promotion of Pharon L. Metzger from assistant sales manger to sales manager automotive cables and diversified products. AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisementMetzger will assume responsibility for the sales, marketing and management of East Penn’s diversified products to the company’s national account base. He will also continue to manage and promote sales through the company’s independent rep agencies. Metzger joined East Penn after graduating from Moravian College in 1987 as sales trainee. Since then he has been promoted to route salesman, city salesman, district manager and his most recent position as assistant manager automotive cables and diversified products. _______________________________________ Click here to view the rest of today’s headlines.,Lubrication Specialties Inc. (LSI), manufacturer of Hot Shot’s Secret brand of performance additives and oils, recently announced the expansion of senior leadership. Steve deMoulpied joins LSI as the company’s chief operating officer (COO). AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement With more than 20 years of experience across multiple industries and functional areas, deMoulpied has particular expertise in organizations with complex technical products. Combined, his prior positions have required a spectrum of skills in corporate strategy, operations improvement, product quality, and revenue cycle management. He has an impressive history of utilizing data driven problem solving (Lean Six Sigma) and project management (PMP and CSM) to achieve strategic goals surrounding customer satisfaction, operational efficiency and improved profit.  DeMoulpied has a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering Management from the United States Air Force Academy and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Dayton in Marketing and International Business. He served six years with the USAF overseeing the development of technology used on fighter aircraft and the E-3 Surveillance aircraft, finishing his career honorably as Captain.last_img read more

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Primary Health to raise £38.6m for expansion

first_imgThe healthcare property investor, which was one of the nine listed companies to convert into a REIT on 1 January, is carrying out a placing and open offer of 9.3m shares at 430p each, which is underwritten by Numis Securities.The share issue coincided with the company’s half-year results to 31 December 2006, which showed a 7% increase in net asset value to 421p a share. Pretax profits were down 4% to £9m.The purchase in December of Cathedral Healthcare added nine properties valued at £30.9m, which increased the size of Primary Health’s portfolio to £260m. ‘’The first half of our financial year has started strongly with all of our key performance indicators rising,’ said managing director Harry Hyman.last_img read more

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Punk Rock From Another Planet

first_imgIndependent/Courtesy East End ArtsEast End Arts in Riverhead is hitting the retro scene with its upcoming exhibit “Frankie Says,” featuring 1970s and 1980s NYC punk rock era club photography by Frankie Neptune and video interviews by Paul Tschinkel. The three-week show will have a grand opening Friday, September 6, from 6 to 9 PM.Neptune was a concrete jungle anthropologist of sorts back in what many would call a definitive era for the streets of Manhattan. He grew up in NYC and was so embedded into the culture that he even drove a taxi from late at night into the morning hours during his college years. That time is what he dubs his “Gotham Esthetic” in his photographs, all shot on 35mm Kodachrome slides. His days driving around, snapping stills, was when punk rock was just emerging in the SoHo art scene during the early 1970s. That’s when Neptune began to pave his way with Tschinkel, a video artist. The two collaborated to produce videos for the “Inner Tube” television series.And it wasn’t long before he Neptune decided to sell his photography on the bustling streets of downtown Manhattan. His photos have since been exhibited worldwide.“I am excited to be part of the East End Arts Council’s artistic renaissance. It has taken an affirmative action identifying artists from the North Fork. Due to her insightful, bold, and innovative leadership, executive director Diane Burke has made me feel comfortable sharing my old and new work in the EEAC venue,” Neptune said.Independent/Courtesy East End Arts“My mentor and co-artist Paul Tschinkel shares his vast and incisive knowledge of the seminal personalities of the exciting and revolutionary SoHo art and punk rock alternative. It is the history he has memorialized since 1970 and continues to do today that will illuminate artistic historical unknown facts,” he added.With a bachelor of arts degree in communication arts and sciences, and a masters in instructional technology, Neptune took the New York Police Department police officer exam for the heck of it. But when the force called upon him for duty, he took it with plans to leave after a year. However, he enjoyed the front lines of his city so much that he stayed long enough to become a sergeant and lieutenant, eventually eschewing his former photographic career. He then retired in the early 2000s and became a full-time North Fork resident. East End Arts Gallery is located at 133 East Main Street in Riverhead. Visit www.eastendarts.org for more information.nicole@indyeastend.com Sharelast_img read more

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Cell Tower Conflict Continues

first_imgThe wind turbine tower, located at the Iacono Farm on Long Lane, is AT&T’s preferred location to place cell signal antennas. Independent/T.E. McMorrowThe Town of East Hampton moved ever closer to officially signing off on the proposed 185-foot-tall cell phone monopole tower at the former Northwest Woods brush even as neighbors made it clear they were vehemently opposed to its placement by their homes. A special public hearing was held before the East Hampton Town Planning Board February 5. The board has to issue a special permit for the project to move forward.The day before that hearing, members of the town’s zoning board of appeals signed off on the variances needed for the project; necessary because the distance from the proposed tower to three neighboring properties, including one owned by the town, was less than double the height of the tower, contrary to town code.The town appears to be in a legal dilemma. The wind turbine tower at Iacono Farm on Long Lane had been AT&T’s preferred place to put the cell phone antennas, but the planning board rejected that proposal in 2017, urging AT&T use the Northwest Woods site. The telecommunications company sued, and the two sides settled with an agreement favoring AT&T. It would build at the Northwest Woods site, but only if the town issued all needed permits within 60 days, and after that, only if there was no legal action against the town from neighbors that would hold the project up for more than 90 days.As of now, five neighbors have retained two law firms. David Kirst, who represents one plaintiff, said that, given the elevation of the site, the pole would be the equivalent of a 22-story building, and that the application “fails to meet most, if not all” standards for issuing the needed permit.Andrew Campanelli, representing four other surrounding homeowners, warned the board that if the tower is constructed, “you are going to reduce the value of these people’s homes by $750,000 to $1.1 million.” He said that court precedent favors his clients, and that the board was ignoring the fact that AT&T would “prefer to go to Iacono farm.”That loss in value of his clients’ properties, Campanelli told The Independent, could be grounds for a lawsuit against planning board members personally, for fiduciary irresponsibility. Three of the neighbors, all of whom live on Bull Path, spoke in opposition to the brush dump site. “Nobody wants to be near this,” Pam Leichter said. Two town residents spoke in support, including Tom Cooper, who lives next door to Iacono Farm.t.e@indyeastend.com Sharelast_img read more

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Fred. Olsen secures CFXD contract

first_imgThe project is divided into two phases that will take place from 2022-23. When complete, the CFXD offshore wind farms will be located 11-25 km west of Taiwan and comprise 62 MHI Vestas V174-9.5 MW turbines.For the project, Fred. Olsen Windcarrier will utilise its jack-up vessel Brave Tern, which will soon commence work on the Yunlin offshore wind farm, also in Taiwan.Casper Toft, chief commercial officer at Fred. Olsen Windcarrier, said: “We are extremely proud to win another transport and installation job in the growing Taiwanese offshore wind market. CFXD is an important project for us and will strengthen our position and commitment to the growing Taiwanese market and the Asia Pacific (APAC) region in general.”Last year, Fred. Olsen Ocean opened a branch office in Taipei to support the growing offshore wind business in Taiwan and the broader APAC region, as HLPFI reported here. windcarrier.comlast_img read more

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Eurotunnel tries on-board fire suppression

first_imgINTRO: Sprinklers inside freight shuttle wagons are the favoured option for protecting the Channel Tunnel from the costly damage caused by the November 1996 fire. Richard Hope watched a full-scale test in a specially constructed wind tunnelPERCHED INCONGRUOUSLY on a concrete apron behind Darchem Engineering’s works in Stillington, County Durham, is half a tunnel made of corrugated steel. One side is curved to match half the internal profile of a running tunnel under the English Channel down to the level of the walkway; the other is flat, representing the vertical centre-line of the bore.One end of this unique structure is open. The other splays out to accommodate a formidable array of fans powered by diesel-alternator sets delivering 1·5MW. For this is a wind tunnel, and its sole purpose is to test the effectiveness of measures designed to avoid the structural damage which resulted in six months of single-track working through the middle third of the Channel Tunnel after the disastrous fire of November 18 1996.Fire suppression neededThat fire started in a lorry trailer aboard a freight shuttle, and was well alight as the train entered the Tunnel. The French authorities decided it was arson, but no arrest followed.Numerous technical and procedural changes have been made by Eurotunnel to reduce the risk of fire breaking out on a lorry, and to ensure the safety of lorry drivers who ride in a conventional passenger coach behind the leading locomotive. In particular, optical smoke opacity detectors on the loading wagons at the front, middle and rear of each freight shuttle – which had been slow to react to the 1996 fire – have been recalibrated and tested to the satisfaction of the Channel Tunnel Safety Authority. This involved test runs through the Tunnel using simulated smoke.The most important procedural change is that, following a confirmed fire alarm, freight shuttles no longer attempt to reach the emergency siding at the destination terminal. Instead, the freight shuttle driver makes a controlled stop so that his passengers can be evacuated into the service tunnel – as eventually happened without serious injury in 1996. For Eurostar, passenger shuttles and through freight trains, drive-out-if-you-can remains the first option. But this policy change leaves a burning train stationary in the Tunnel. One important lesson of 1996 was that by the time fire-fighters arrive on the scene, and evacuation of passengers from the service tunnel has been completed, the fire is likely to have spread to several lorries and be out of control. Last time, the total cost to Eurotunnel’s insurers in physical damage and lost revenues exceeded £60m. To prevent a repetition, the company decided that some way of suppressing a fire on a lorry must be devised.Do it on the trainConsultants Kennedy Donkin studied two basic ways of doing this. The first, which gained favour early in 1997, was the installation of fire suppression stations at about 5 km intervals. The shuttle driver would try to reach one of these, and passengers would be evacuated as water sprays fed from the fire main deluged the burning wagons.This policy was adopted in the Seikan Tunnel, where emergency evacuation stations with water sprays were built at the two coastal shafts. They have since become tourist destinations in their own right, with timetable stops and guided tours (RG 12.90 p959). Closer analysis revealed serious weaknesses in this option:last_img read more

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Norwegians try ticketless travel

first_imgNorwegian State Railways is offering passengers ticketless travel on its Signatur tilting trains. The ’Station in Train’ project is based on text messaging and digital communications designed and delivered by ICL Invia, ICL’s Nordic e-business services company. Each train is equipped with a computer terminal with a GSM link, and the conductor uses this to send and receive information about seat reservations and ticketing. Travellers call NSB to book a seat, paying by credit card. Their seat number is confirmed and the information transmitted to the ticket office and train, so the conductor is continually updated with information. Passengers board without tickets, and are given a receipt by the conductor. Tony Hlast_img read more

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Quetta expresses inaugurated

first_imgON MAY 16 Pakistan Railways launched two daily inter-city express services from the western city of Quetta. The inaugural trains were flagged off by the Governor of Baluchistan, Owais Ahmed Ghani.Worked with new Chinese-built air-conditioned coaches, the accelerated Baluchistan Express between Quetta and Karachi now covers the 862 km in 16h. The Abbasin Express between Quetta and Peshawar takes 31h for the 1587 km, and replaces the former Quetta – Rawalpindi Jaffar Express, serving Nowshera and Attock on the 70 km extension to Peshawar. Two Japanese tourists visiting NorthWest Frontier province had been invited to inaugurate the first southbound Abbasin Express, which left Peshawar on May 15.According to PR’s Divisional Superintendent in Quetta, Ali Hasan Tori, the two trains are expected to generate revenues of around Rs500000 a day. PR is planning to buy 150 new coaches to replace ageing stock on four of its principal routes, including Lahore – Rawalpindi and Lahore – Faisalabad. The proposal envisages that 40 coaches would be imported and the rest assembled locally.last_img read more

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